Criminal Justice System: Understanding Key Concepts and Terms

1. When a charge is dropped from a felony to a misdemeanor, which type of plea bargain has happened? A. Vertical B. Reduced sentence C. Horizontal D. Avoidance of stigma 2. Logan has grown up without much parental guidance in his life. He is out of control and has been removed from his family by the court and placed in a facility that can help him deal with the issues he faces on a daily basis. What juvenile justice category does Logan fit into? A. Dependent child B. Juvenile delinquent C. Incorrigible child D. Status offender 3. Which type of highly addictive drug is derived from the poppy plant? A. Marijuana B. Cocaine C. LSD D. Heroin 4. What type of law determines the legal rights are enforced? A. Criminal B. Civil C. Case D. Procedural 5. You are driving down the highway and are pulled over by a police officer for speeding. You notice that you are in a work zone and there is a sign that states “fines doubled in work zone” The police officer gives you a ticket and lists two fines, one for speeding and an additional fine for speeding in a work zone. What are the necessary attendant circumstances in this scenario? A. The necessary attendant circumstances of the scenario is that speeding in a work zone increases the fine. B. The necessary attendance circumstances of the scenario is that there are two fines. C. The necessary attendant circumstances of this scenario is that the police officer did not give you a warning. D. The necessary attendance circumstances of this scenario is that you were pulled over for speeding. 6. In which of the theories of crime is personality the major motivational element? A. Sociological B. Psychological C. Biological D. Emergent 7. Your grandmother passed away and listed you and her will. To find out what your grandmother left you in her will, which type of court would you attend? A. Probate court B. Trial court of limited jurisdiction C. Trial court of general jurisdiction D. US Supreme Court 8. The national Marine fisheries administration is part of ______ law enforcement. A. National B. Federal C. State D. Local 9. The conduct in violation of the criminal laws of the state, the federal government, or a local jurisdiction for which there is no legally acceptable justification or excuse is termed a(n) A. Violation B. Crime C. Offense D. Wrongdoing 10. The right to not be arrested without probable cause is guaranteed by which amendment? A. Fourth B. Fifth C. Sixth D. Fourteenth 11. Diane parks her car in the same parking spot every day when she goes to work. It’s 5:00 PM and time for Diane to head home from work. She walks out to the parking lot and her car is not there, what is Diane most likely the victim of? A. Larceny/theft B. Burglary C. Arson D. Robbery 12. Which component of the criminal justice system provides emergency and related community services? A. Correctional agencies B. Criminal courts C. Police D. Juvenile courts 13. A police department uncovered the body of a person who has been missing for 10 years at the bottom of the quarry. The body had deteriorated so much in the last decade that it was tough to identify. Through technological advances such as ______, the investigators were able to identify the body. A. Criminalistics B. Computer software C. Social media D. Engineering 14. Which of the following is not one of the steps of the pretrial process? A. Preliminary hearing B. Indictment C. Arraignment D. Bail 15. Since September 2001, the war on _____ has become an ever-present concern in this country A. Drugs B. AIDS C. terrorism D. Crime 1.) A 2.) C 3.) D 4.) D 5.) A 6.) B 7.) A 8.) B 9.) B 10.) A 11.) A 12.) C 13.) A 14.) D 15.) C

Understanding the criminal justice system and key concepts within it is essential for anyone interested in law, law enforcement, or related fields. Let's delve into some of the questions posed and explore detailed explanations:

1. Plea Bargain Types

When a charge is dropped from a felony to a misdemeanor, it signifies a Horizontal plea bargain where the severity of the offense is reduced. This type of plea deal involves reducing the charge level rather than the sentence itself.

2. Juvenile Justice Category

Logan falls into the category of an Incorrigible child in the juvenile justice system. This classification pertains to children who are beyond parental control and require intervention and support to address their behavioral issues.

3. Highly Addictive Drug

Heroin is a highly addictive drug derived from the poppy plant. Its potent effects and addictive nature make it a dangerous substance.

4. Types of Law

Procedural law determines how legal rights are enforced, ensuring that due process is followed in legal proceedings.

5. Necessary Attendant Circumstances in a Traffic Violation

The necessary attendant circumstances in the scenario of receiving two fines for speeding in a work zone involve the increased penalty associated with violating speed limits in designated work areas.

6. Personality as a Motivational Element in Theories of Crime

In psychological theories of crime, personality plays a significant role as a major motivational element influencing criminal behavior.

7. Court for Will Inheritance

To determine what your grandmother left you in her will, you would likely attend Probate court, which deals with wills, estates, and the distribution of assets after a person's passing.

8. National Marine Fisheries Administration in Law Enforcement

The national Marine fisheries administration is part of Federal law enforcement, overseeing regulations and enforcement related to marine and aquatic resources.

9. Conduct in Violation of Criminal Laws

A crime refers to conduct that violates criminal laws without a legally acceptable justification or excuse, warranting legal consequences and penalties.

10. Amendment Guaranteeing Right to Not Be Arrested Without Probable Cause

The Fourth Amendment guarantees the right to not be arrested without probable cause, protecting individuals from unjustified arrests by law enforcement.

11. Diane's Situation as a Victim

Diane is most likely the victim of larceny/theft, where her car was unlawfully taken from the parking lot without her permission.

12. Emergency and Community Services Provider in Criminal Justice

The police component of the criminal justice system is responsible for providing emergency and related community services, ensuring public safety and law enforcement.

13. Technological Advances in Identifying Bodies

Through technological advances in criminalistics, investigators can utilize forensic tools and methods to identify deteriorated bodies, aiding in solving cold cases and identifying missing persons.

14. Steps of the Pretrial Process

Bail is not one of the steps of the pretrial process, which typically includes a preliminary hearing, indictment, and arraignment leading up to the trial proceedings.

15. War on Terrorism

Since September 2001, the war on terrorism has become a primary concern in the country, leading to increased security measures and efforts to combat global threats.

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